Nowadays, computers and the Internet play a role of a family member or a good companion at work so people become not capable to live without Hi-Tech technologies. People are able to send and receive letters or to communicate in chat, to find various pieces of information, to take part in different virtual activities that are connected with a real life by means of computers and mobile devices. However, unfortunately, there is another side of the revolutionary informational devices. There are people who commit crimes. For these people, mobile phones, laptops, and network maintain not only the function of communication and entertaining. For them, it also becomes more comfortable and safer to commit their crime. On the other hand, sometimes computers provide the resources in order to commit the crime. It should be mentioned examples when the Internet is used for delivering a death threat via email; for the debut of hacker attacks, for spreading computer viruses, or for transmitting pornography images of children. The computer also is used by criminals in order to provide convenient storage devices for evidence of the crime. The dramatic increase of Hi-Tech Crime requires the legal issues, principles and procedures currently employed for gathering evidence from the computer, network, the Internet and mobile devices. Many current policies and procedures do not take into account social networks and online chat clients, so it is significant to discuss these technologies and suggest strategies to deal with the evidence that would result from investigations involving these elements. All these tasks raise one more question that should be answered here: the use of the “Trojan defence”, the malware infection that effects upon the computer of a suspect.
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The purpose of the development of new methods of work for police officers becomes urgent today in the U.K. If study the facts that different research organizations give, Great Britain is on the 19th position among other 20 nations where the highest level of botnet threat was diagnosed. The BBC statistics, which was published in the article News Technology (2012), exposed that in most cases almost all ISPs in Britain over the past few years where the Internet providers that supplied homes, businesses or the government with botnets.
Firstly, we should take into account the fact, that electronic records provide the government with important evidence in different criminal cases. That is why as Slapper and Kelly (2006) wrote, it was vital to provide legal issues in the U.K. Federal law that can help to make justification of seeking electronic data in illegal investigations.
The ACPO wrote in its Good Practice Guide for Managers of e-Crime investigation that the only national organization that had been made to fight computer crime was closed. Now its role to combat serious nationally and internationally organized hi-tech crime is replaced on the shoulders of the Serious Organized Crime Agency (Sosa) of the U.K.
Each police officer should understand that there must be some juridical foundation in order to legalize electronic evidence in criminal investigations, so there is a comprehensible require for the Constitution to bring into line the Internet crime practice and procedures all over the U.K. Harris (2002) also notes that all at once it is useful to learn the best to development issues, that are connected with the discussed questions in this research. British Policing must share its achievements and experience within one another to better their skills.
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Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2011) underlines, that there are still problems with the disclosure and confidentiality in a civil action and cooperation with law enforcement. But one way is absolutely legal. Police has the power to obtain information from third parties either via a Production.
Secondly, when police acquires the possibility to collect digital evidence from network environments, it will present an opportunity of investigating crime actions and prevention their dissemination in the country and in the world. This leeway is based on sending files and resources to one another in interconnected devices that becomes more and more common among the users of wireless Internet. The problem is that when a police has neither tool nor training, it becomes unreal to collect digital evidence, to discover all the facts that are in computer files or in printers and external hard drives that are at home. It is also clear that each and every law enforcement needs the specific outfit to gather data in order to extend across plentiful of storage devices too. Today tools, available at this time, are not suitable for capabilities of up today network technologies.
Thirdly, two latest network NIJ forensics tools were created. Different methods to gather evidence are used although these tools get hold of the similar type of information.
The first tool is called the Network Boot Disk. Crime scenes use it for gathering various types of information from Web sites, e-mail, hard drives and other servers. Hi-Tech Crime Unit (2010) explains that this tool will help to make it is possible to discover the type of operating system and application that are linked with the device. It is designed in order to fulfill the function of installation and accessing of drivers. It makes probable to make legal the use of recently developed hardware at crime scenes and to collect data without obtaining the real physical hardware device. With its help, police can put off data adjustment through write-blocking software.
Another tool is called the Image Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID). It can be useful to institute someone who has rights to the net system or index exacting pieces of information.
The second tool is called the Acquisition of Network Device Evidence System (ANDES). It can be used on handheld mobile computers; consequently, it is capable at struggling with network attack forensics. With its help, it will be possible for computer forensic investigators to jail evidence that in other cases would be overlooked or be unreasonable to gather.
All tools are used for different purposes. The strategies vary and depend on the concrete case, so some examples are to be given here. The most frequent case is when a website advertising pornography is found. So the first action is the recognition of the website’s actual location in the world. Here, the Police Officers should pay attention that many sites are outside Great Britain. They are more often at EU jurisdiction that is why we cannot do much in order to stop these sites. It is well-known that most pornographic websites with child pornography can be found in Russian or Eastern European Internet platforms. What we can do, is to submit the web site address to the Internet. If any emails were received it is necessary to delete them immediately and to block the email senders. There exists many thousands of website all over the world, which contain pictures of pornography. Most pornography sites that contain indecent images of children are illegal.
Under UK law, there must be a special procedure in order to solve a crime that connects with the children’s pornography. First of all, it is not allowed to save the indecent images of children to a computer. Even a police cannot do this when investigate offences. The only thing that is legal is to save the website address forward to the IWF.
Another situation is given in Good Practice Guide for Managers of the e-Crime investigation. If somebody, for example, has his auto advertised on the site and a person who is eager to purchase it, send a cheque with a sum of money more than is asked, we may have a deal with one more tremendously frequent scam. That acts like this: a person from another country wants to buy a car and in order to save time sends the money straight to a seller. He sends an international cheque for example for $7000 and asks the trader to send a delivery of $300 by means of Western Union. Their Britain shipping agent arranges everything. After that, a person who sells a car pays a cheque with the help of Internet account. Therefore, five days later it becomes clear that so the balance via the Western Union was sent. Conversely in two weeks the bank, he used, says that cheque is falsified or was stolen, and you lose the lot.
This crime directly is connected with a deceit at the reception of electronic letters with full headings. The scheme is perfected and was used more than once on many unfortunate sellers.
This is a frequent case when there is some problem with bank payment system. It should be noted a 100% guarantee to have the money by cheque is not impossible on the Internet. The difficulties to the police are that all operations with money and communication on the Internet are done by means of the anonymous email account. The offenders use the fake ID to accumulate money from your account in the bank and they act abroad.
In order to protect the computer from various attacks or malware infection, it is better to undergo some general pieces of advice that regard most common and often computer incidents. First, high-quality antivirus with a good software firewall must be used on your computer. It is possible to download a lot of first-class free software on the Internet but it is better to use the help of a person, who knows how to install a save and up-to-day programme. Second, any offensive pictures with pornography must be saved on computers, even to help police to inspect. Third, it is better to be very suspicious of chat rooms and careful when you give any personal information. Chat rooms are awfully tricky to police for investigating because it is not always possible to mark out offending users. It is also very important to do select third-party content providers very cautiously, to do the monitoring of your sites, to use good passwords and to drop a line to your hosting company or publishing platform in order special groups to make your work on the Internet save. You are also recommended to use same protocols and update the latest versions of antivirus programmes. Accordingly, it will help to protect your computer.
In conclusion, it should be said that the Internet is used in all spheres of human’s lives, so for thieves that gives the chance to expand the sphere of their action and to develop new schemes of Hi-Tech Crime. Therefore, for the successful struggle against the Internet criminals the first thing to be done is to work out corresponding strategies, secondly – to introduce new tools and the complex and complete approach for catching Hi-Tech criminals, and the thirdly, thing that is too important is to train more highly skilled employees.
It is also clear, that the Trojan defence is considered to be usual in many cases of computer crime. Besides the High-tech crime has a worldwide aspect. Various ISPs are located aboard. The UK has common legal support connections with other countries. Many local police forces in Britain have not special good equipment to fulfil the strategies of the NHTCU’s toils. That is why for many chief police officers do not pay much attention to this sort of crime. However, each police organization must take a responsibility and create a cyber-crime line of attack with the help of computer specialists.
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