One of the most widely known instructional design model is the Dick and Carey model. Since 1968, several versions of this model have been developed (Dick & Carey, 2004). Throughout the time Dick and Carey model had been modified and can be used in business now. Nowadays, Dick and Carey model is still used and has helped shape other models like Kirkpatrick model. Another important model is called Diamond Model, created by Robert Diamond. It is specially formed for institutions of higher education and provides a great example of a team work. The author believed that cooperation between different types of people will bring fruitful results at the end. A lot of visual materials are used in this model and it distinguishes this pattern from others. Dick and Carey model could be called a macro-level model because it covers the whole design task and gives detailed steps that will help to achieve a goal. Although Diamond model is more flexible, it helps to find the most appropriate solution for a particular situation. Using own ideas and methods to achieve a goal will provoke a person to create new solutions and approaches. Diamond model stimulates a person to think “out-of-box”, to ignore traditional solutions or methods, and it requires analyzing a current social situation, being realistic and being able to solve a problem on your own.
Get this EXCLUSIVE benefits for FREE
Outline (on demand)
Instructional design model consists of the reductionist model of breaking instructions into smaller elements. It comprises 9 stages, starting with identifying goals and ending with summative evaluation. At the first stage, it is necessary to identify instructional goals. It is important to understand what the goal of the instruction is and what learners will be able to do at the end. The second stage refers to conducting the instructional analysis. It determines skills and knowledge required for students to do the instruction. Next stage is identifying entry behaviors. It distinguishes skills that students will bring to the learning task. Writing performance objectives deal with interpreting the needs and targets into specific objectives. The fifth stage is called Developing Criterion-Reference Test Items and it focuses on developing prerequisites for learning new skills and identifying how to check students` results and, at this time, provide these results to them (Gustafson, 2002).Another stage is an instructional Strategy. It determines what kind of activities student should follow to achieve the goal (giving examples, practice, feedback, pretest, memorization etc.).The seventh stage is to develop and select instructional materials. It works with types of materials that are necessary to use (printed, media etc.).Developing and conducting Formative Evaluation means to improve instructional materials and to make them effective for as many students as possible. And the last stage determines the summative evaluation. The task is to understand how effective the system was in whole and whether students achieved their goals.
In comparison to instructional design model, the Diamond model includes only 5 stages: 1) defining the need to change 2) determining aims and results 3) identifying instructions and assessments that will help to achieve the goal 4) fulfillment of the goal using assessments 5) revision of a result and desired outcome. In this model, stages are not so clear written and explained because students should have the possibility to decide on their own what needs to be done to achieve the goal. Also, this model includes two Phases and each Phase incorporates with some stages in Dick and Carey Model. Phase I consists of project selection and design (Diamond, 1989). These stages are mentioned in Dick and Carey Model till the fifth stage. The difference is that Dick and Carey Model is more detailed so the first phase in that model consists of more steps. Phase II contains production, implementation and evaluation that corresponds to last 5 stages in Dick and Carey Model (Diamond, 1989). The difference is in another formulation of instructions, but the meaning remains the same. Also in Dick and Carey model, all stages are described more elaborated and it gives step-by-step instructions what should be done.
The similarity of these two models is that each of them has an objective plan for students but different steps are used to achieve goals. Dick and Carey model can be called as an organized model. It gives students definite instructions how to achieve their goals. The Diamond model emphasizes on spontaneous decisions of a student and gives some instructions, but they are not so detailed. A student has the only general idea about instructions and he decides on his own what methods or actions are needed for getting the desired result. The advantage of Dick and Carey model is that it provides detailed instructions to a student so he can successfully finish the task. In Diamond, model student should use his own ideas and there is a possibility that the task will not be finished or will be finished partially because of the lack of ideas. In addition, Dick and Carey model can be used for large or small audiences of a different age, while Diamond model is preferably for students of higher educational institutions and big groups of people. Although in Dick and Carey model learners don’t consider the current social situation and it can be a problem to achieve the goal. In Diamond model daily situation is over thought and took into attention, so this model could be called more flexible. In order to fulfill all steps in Diamond model, you don’t need to spend too much time, but finishing Dick and Carey model will take a great deal of time because of many steps to follow. Also, each level in this model is difficult to understand and students need a careful and appropriate explanation. In Diamond model all steps are clearer and more accessible, so students will not have problems with understanding. In Diamond model people work in teams and it has a good influence on the result and on people in a whole, while Dick and Carey’s model implies single work that doesn’t train teamwork skills. Both models are goal-directed but the difference is that in Diamond model students can change their actions within the task depending on the situation, while Dick and Carey’s model instructions are not so flexible and students are able to change something only after finishing the task. At the same time, Diamond model provokes creative and innovative decisions, while Dick and Carey’s model is based on the traditional boundaries. Another point is that according to Diamond model many visual materials can be used, so it helps a student to get information quicker. Dick and Carey model is usually used without any diagrams or graphics and can cause some difficulties in realizing the task or situation. At the end of the task, all students will reach their goals but this will be achieved with the help of different methods. Dick and Carey’s model seems to be easier for students because it is clear, detailed and easy to follow. Diamond model is more difficult and demanding. That is why this model is likely to be used in higher educational institutions than schools.
There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages of each model that could significantly influence on the educator`s choice. Using this or that method depends on many factors starting from the age of the audience and ending with the current social situation in a particular area. The task of an educator is to choose the appropriate model for his audience and make everything possible to help students achieve their goals.
|Benefits of Technology to the Society||People Change Management|